MIT - Plasma Science and Fusion Center
Phone: (617) 253-6053
Experimental studies of magnetically confined plasmas including turbulence and transport, density limits and pellet fueling. Data management, computation, networks and remote collaborations for scientific research.
Greenwald received bachelor degrees in Physics and
Chemistry from MIT in 1973 and a PhD. in Physics from the
University of California at Berkeley in 1978. He
joined the Plasma Fusion Center in 1978 and has conducted
experimental physics research on the Alcator A, C, and
C-Mod tokamaks, including studies of energy and
particle transport, pellet fueling, density limits,
neutral particle measurements, and studies of energetic
ion dynamics. He was part of the design team for Alcator
C-Mod. His recent work has focused on the role
of critical gradients in determining plasma temperature
profiles, on the EDA H-mode regime, and on the role of
turbulent transport in determining the tokamak density
limit. This latter work is aimed toward defining a
"first principals" theory for the limit with the long term
goal of obtaining reliable predictions and extrapolations
to future machines. Dr. Greenwald's work in pellet fueling
on Alcator C included the discovery of a new regime of
enhanced energy and particle confinement. This was the
first attainment of an internal transport barrier in a
tokamak which is recognized as one of two generic
approaches (along with H-Mode) to improving tokamak
confinement. Because of the correlation with peaked
density profile, the work spurred interest in the hi or
Ion Thermal Gradient driven (ITG) mode, now believed to be
the principal mechanism for anomalous transport in
tokamaks. In 2009-2011 he was the chief scientist
for the Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) planning team.
Dr. Greenwald is Deputy Director of MIT's Plasma Science & Fusion Center (PSFC) and an MIT Senior Research Scientist. He heads the PSFC Office of Computer Services and the group responsible for data acquisition and computing for the Alcator C-Mod project. He serves on the editorial board for Physics of Plasmas, is a past chairman of the Federal Advisory Committee for Fusion Energy Sciences (FESAC), an APS Fellow and APS/DPP Distinguished Lecturer in Plasma Physics.
Selected Publications and
"A metadata catalog for
organization and systemization of fusion simulation
data", M. Greenwald, T. Fredian, D. Schissel, J.
Stillerman, Fusion Engineering and Design, to be
"Characterization of impurity confinement on Alcator C-Mod using a multi-pulse laser blow-off system", Howard, N.T., Greenwald, M.; Rice, J.E., Review of Scientific Instruments, 82, 2011.
Verification and validation for magnetic fusion",
M. Greenwald, Phys. Plasmas 17, 058101, 2010.
"Modification of H-mode pedestal structure with lower hybrid waves on Alcator C-Mod", Hughes JW, Hubbard AE, Wallace G, Greenwald M, LaBombard B, Lin L, McDermott RM, Parker RR, Reinke ML, Rice JE, Nuclear Fusion 50, 064001, 2010
"Particle transport in tokamak plasmas, theory and experiment", C. Angioni, E. Fable, M. Greenwald, M. Maslov, A.G. Peters, H. Takenaga, H. Weisen, PPCF 51, 124017, 2009.
"Observation of ion cyclotron range of frequencies mode conversion plasma flow drive on Alcator C-Mod", Y. Lin, J. E. Rice, S. J. Wukitch, M. J. Greenwald, A. E. Hubbard, A. Ince-Cushman, L. Lin,E.S. Marmar, M. Porkolab, M. L. Reinke, N. Tsujii, and J. C. Wright, Phys. Plasmas 16, 056102 (2009)
"Observation of self-generated flows in tokamak plasmas with lower-hybrid driven current", A. Ince-Cushman, J. Rice, M. Reinke, M. Greenwald, G. Wallace, R. Parker, C. Fiore, J.Hughes, P. Bonoli, S. Shiraiwa, A. Hubbard, S. Wolfe, I. Hutchinson, E. Marmar, M. Bitter, J. Wilson, K. Hill, PRL 102, 035002, 2009.
"An investigation of secure remote instrument control", Schissel, D.P. , Abla, G.; Fredian, T.; Greenwald, M.; Penaflor, B.G.; Stillerman, J.; Walker, M.L.; Ciarlette, D.J. Fusion Engineering and Design 85, 608, 2010
"Studies of turbulence and transport in Alcator C-Mod H-mode plasmas with phase contrast imaging and comparisons with GYRO", L. Lin, M. Porkolab, E. Edlund, J. Rost, C. Fiore, M. Greenwald, Y. Lin, D. Mikkelsen, N. Tsujii, S. Wukitch, Phys. Plasmas 16, 012502, 2009.
"Observations of counter-current toroidal rotation in Alcator C-mod LHCD plasmas", J. Rice, A. Ince-Cushman, P. Bonoli, M. Greenwald, J. Hughes, R. Parker, M. Reinke, G. Wallace, C. Fiore, R. Granetz, A. Hubbard, J. Irby, E. Marmar, S. Shiraiwa, S. Wolfe, S. Wukitch, Nuclear Fusion, 49, 025004, 2009.
"Studies of turbulence and transport in Alcator C-Mod Ohmic plasmas with phase contrast imaging and comparisons with gyrokinetic simulations", L. Lin, M. Porkolab, E. Edlund, J. Rost, M. Greenwald, N. Tsujii, J. Candy, R. Waltz, D. Mikkelsen,, PPCF 51, 065006, 2009.
"Spontaneous core toroidal rotation in Alcator C-Mod L-mode, H-mode and ITB plasmas”, J. Rice, A. Ince-Cushman, M. Reinke, Y. Podpaly, M. Greenwald, B. LaBombard, E. Marmar, , PPCF 50, 124042, 2008.
"Observation of ICRH mode conversion flow drive in tokamak plasmas",Y. Lin, J. Rice, S. Wukitch, M. Greenwald, A. Hubbard, A. Ince-Cushman, L. Lin, M. Porkolab, M. Reinke, N. Tsujii, PRL 101, 235002, 2008.
"Validation in fusion research: Towards guidelines and best practices", P. W. Terry, M. Greenwald, J.-N. Leboeuf, G. R. McKee, D. R. Mikkelsen, W. M. Nevins, D. E. Newman, D. P. Stotler, Task Group on Verification and Validation, U.S. Burning Plasma Organization, and U.S. Transport Task Force, Phys. Plasmas 15, 062503 (2008)
"Critical gradients and plasma flows in the edge plasma of Alcator C-Mod, B. LaBombard", J. W. Hughes, N. Smick, A. Graf, K. Marr, R. McDermott, M. Reinke, M. Greenwald, B. Lipschultz, J. L. Terry, D. G. Whyte, S. J. Zweben, and Alcator C-Mod Team, Phys. Plasmas 15, 056106 (2008)
"Communications fabric for scientific collaboration”, Stillerman, J., Baron, D.; Fredian, T.; Greenwald, M.; Schulzrinne, H., Fusion Engineering and Design, 83, p 476-479, 2008
Gaps and Opportunities: Towards a Long-Range Strategic
Plan for Magnetic Fusion Energy", M. Greenwald, R.
Callis, D., W. Dorland, D.
Gates, J. Harris, R. Linford, M. Mauel, K. McCarthy, D.
Meade, F. Najmabadi, W. Nevins, J. Sarff, M. Ulrickson, M.
Zarnstorff, S. Zinkle, FESAC report DOE/SC-102
Transport and Density Peaking at Low Collisionality on
M. Greenwald, J. Hughes, D. Mikkelsen, J. Terry, Alcator
Group, C. Angioni, H. Weisen, APS-DPP, 2007
"Particle Transport and Density Peaking at Low Collisionality on Alcator C-Mod", M. Greenwald, J. Hughes, D. Mikkelsen, J. Terry, Alcator Group, C. Angioni, H. Weisen, APS-DPP, 2007
CODAC conceptual design", Lister, J. B.,
Farthing, J. W., Greenwald, M., Yonekawa,
"Particle Transport at Low Collisionality on Alcator C-Mod", M. Greenwald, J. Hughes, D. Mikkelsen, J. Terry, K. Zhurovich, Alcator Group, TTF, 2007
"Fusion Energy: Promise
and Prospects", (PPT) Seminar at Thayer School
of Engineering, Dartmouth College, May 2006
"A tour of transport
research on Alcator C-Mod", Seminar at U. Texas, April 2006
"Confinement and Transport
Research in Alcator C-Mod", Fusion Science and
"Visions for Data
Management and Remote Collaboration on ITER", M. Greenwald,
et al., Proceedings of the 10th International Conference
on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control
"Core and Edge Transport
in Alcator C-Mod: Connections Across the Separatrix",
Columbia University - Plasma Physics Colloquium, 2005.
"Turbulence and Transport: The
Secrets of Magnetic Confinement", M. Greenwald,
presented at MIT-PSFC IAP, 2005.
"Velocity Fields of Edge/SOL
Turbulence in Alcator C-Mod", J. Terry, S. Zweben,
O. Grulke, M. Greenwald, B. LaBombard, J. Nucl. Mat.,
337-339, 322, 2005.
How Experiments and Simulations Can Work Together in
Plasma Physics" ,
M. Greenwald, Computer Physics Communications, 164,
"Rotation, SOL Flows and the
Topology Dependence of the H-Mode Threshold", M.
Greenwald, A. Hubbard, B. LaBombard, J. Rice, APS 2004.
"Migration of Alcator C-Mod
Computer Infrastructure to Linux", T. Fredian, M.
Greenwald, J. Stillerman, Fusion Eng & Design, 71, 89,
"SOL Flows Coupled to the Core
as an Explanation for the Up-Down Asymmetry in the L/H
Threshold", M. Greenwald, B. Labombard, A. Hubbard,
J. Rice, J. Hughes, presented at the TTF workshop, 2004.
"Core and Edge Transport in
Alcator C-Mod: Connections Across the Separatrix", M. Greenwald, UCSD
- Plasma Physics Seminar, 2004.
"Internal Transport Barrier
Production and Control in Alcator C-Mod", C. Fiore,
P. Bonoli, D. Ernst, M. Greenwald, et al., PPCF, 46, B281,
Highlights from the Alcator C-Mod Program", M. Greenwald,
Alcator Team, APS 2003.
"Transitions of Turbulence in
Plasma Density Limits", X. Xu, W. Nevins, T.
Rognlien, R. Bulmer, M. Greenwald, A. Mahdavi, L.
Pearlstein, P. Snyder, Phys. Plasmas, 10, 1773, 2003.
and the Density Limit in Magnetic Fusion Experiments", M. Greenwald,
presented at Dartmouth College Plasma Physics Seminar,
"EU-US Transport Task Force
Workshop on Transport in Fusion Plasmas: Transport Near
Operational Limits", J. Connor, X. Garbert, L.
Giannone, M. Greenwald, C. Hidalgo, A. Loarte, P. Mantica,
PPCF, 45, 455, 2003.
"Observation of Anomalous
Momentum Transport in Tokamak Plasmas with No Momentum
Input", W. Lee, J. Rice, E. Marmar, M. Greenwald, I.
Hutchinson, J. Snipes, PRL 91, 205003/1, 2003.
Density limits in toroidal plasmas, M.
Greenwald, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 44,
pgs. R27-R80, 2002.
Turbulence and Transport as a Possible Cause of the
Tokamak Density Limit", M. Greenwald, B. Labombard, APS 2002.
Characteristics and MHD Stability of the Edge Plasma in
Alcator C-Mod", PPCF, 44, 423, 2002.
"Experimental Validation of
Similarity in High-Temperature Plasmas", T. Luce, c. Petty,
J. Cordey, B. Balet, R. Budny, M. Greenwald, J. Schachter,
Nucl. Fusion, 42, 1193, 2002.
"Edge Turbulence and
Transport as a possible cause of the tokamak density
limit", M. Greenwald, Preview Talk, 9th Eu-US TTF
"Turbulence and Transport:
The Secrets of Magnetic Confinement", M. Greenwald,
presented at Oberlin College Physics Department, 2002.
Limits in Toroidal Plasmas", M. Greenwald, Review
Talk, APS 2001.
"Transport in EDA H-Mode and its
Relation to Fluctuations and the Microstability of the
Pedestal", M. Greenwald, R. Boivin, J. Hastie, et
al, presented at TTF workshop 2001.
"Particle Transport in the SOL
and its Relationship to Discharge Density Limit in
B. LaBombard, R. Boiving, M. Greenwald, et al, Phys.
Plasmas, 8, 2107, 2001.
"Studies of EDA H-Mode in
Alcator C-Mod" M.
Greenwald, et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 42 No 5A
(May 2000) A263-A269
in EDA H-mode and its relation to fluctuations and the
microstability of the pedestal", M. Greenwald, R.
Boivin, R. Granetz, APS 2000.
"Particle transport driven
by quasi-coherent fluctuations in EDA H-modes on Alcator
Greenwald, R. Boivin, C. Fiore, et al., EU-US TTF 2000.
Plasmas", Encyclopedia of
Electrical and Electronic Engineering, John
Webster - editor, published by
John Wiley & Sons, New York (1999)
"Highlights of the Alcator
C-Mod Transport Experiments", M. Greenwald,
presented at Plasma Physics Seminar at Courant
Institute, NYU, 1999.
"Characterization of EDA H-modes in Alcator C-Mod", M. Greenwald, R. Boivin, P. Bonoli, et al., Physics of Plasmas. 6, 1943 (1999).
"Studies of EDA H-Mode in Alcator C-Mod", M. Greenwald, A. Hubbard, B. LaBombard, et al., APS 1999.
"Highlights of Alcator C-Mod Transport Experiments", M. Greenwald, PPPL Theory Seminar, 1999.
"Studies of EDA H-mode in Alcator C-Mod", M. Greenwald, R. Boivin, C. Fiore, et al., H-Mode Workshop, 1999.
"H-Mode regimes and observations of central toroidal rotation in Alcator C-Mod" M. Greenwald, J. Rice, et al., Proceedings of IAEA 17th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Yokohama (1998), Vol. 1, (2000), 281. (Vugraphs from Presentation)
"Transport Studies on C-Mod and Relevance to High-Field Ignition Experiments", M. Greenwald, presented at workshop of US Ignitor Working Group, 1999.
"Transport Phenomena in Alcator C-Mod H-Modes", M. Greenwald, J. Schachter, W. Dorland, et al., Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 40, (1998), 789
"H-Mode Regimes and Observations of Central Toroidal Rotation in Alcator C-Mod", M. Greenwald, J. Rice, et al., presentation at IAEA - FEC, 1998.
"Observations of Central Toroidal Rotation in ICRF Heated ALcator C-Mod Plasmas", J. Rice, M. Greenwald, I. Hutchinson, et al., Nucl. Fusion, 38, 75, 1998.
"H Mode Confinement in Alcator C-Mod", M. Greenwald, R.L. Boivin, F. Bombarda, et al., Nuclear Fusion, 37, (1997), 793
"Data Acquisition System for Alcator C-Mod", T. Fredian, J. Stillerman, M. Greenwald, RSI, 68, 935, 1997.
"Remote Control of Alcator C-Mod from LLNL", S. Horne, M. Greenwald, T. Fredian, et al., Fusion Technology, 32, 152, 1997.
"Transport Experiments in Alcator C-Mod", M. Greenwald, R. Boivin, F. Bombarda, et al., Physics of Plasmas 2, (1995) 2308-2313
"Confinement of Ohmic and ICRF Heated Plasmas in Alcator C-Mod", M. Greenwald, et al., Proceedings of IAEA 15th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Seville, Volume 2, 15 (1995), Available also as PFC/JA 94-29
"A New Look at Density Limits", M. Greenwald, J. Terry, S. Wolfe, S. Ejima, M. Bell, S. Kaye, G.H. Neilsen, Nuclear Fusion 28 (1988) 2199.
"Microwave Measurements of the Mass of Frozen Hydrogen Pellets", V. Talanker, M. Greenwald, RSI, 59, 1095, 1988.
"Studies of the Regime of
Improved Particle and Energy Confinement Following
Pellet Injection into Alcator C.", M.
Greenwald, M. Besen, F. Camacho, et al., .,
Proceedings of IAEA 11th International Conference on
Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research,
Kyoto, Volume I, 139 (1987).
"Effect of Pellet Fueling on
Energy Transport in Ohmically Heated Alcator C Plasmas",
S. Wolfe, M. Greenwald, R. Gandy, et al., Nucl. Fusion,
26, 329, 1986.
"Observations of Centrally
Peaked Impurity Profiles Following Pellet Injection in
the Alcator C Tokamak", R. Petrasso, D. Sigmar, K.
Wenzel, J. Hopf, M. Greenwald, J. Terry, J. Parker, PRL,
57, 707, 1986.
"Progress in tokamak
research at MIT", R. Parker, M. Greenwald, S.
Luckhardt, E. Marmar, M. Porkolab, S. WOlfe, Nuclear
Fusion, 25, 1127, 1985.
Fueling Experiments in Alcator C", M. Greenwald, et
al., J. Vac. Sci. Technology, A, 3, 1192, 1985.
"Energy Confinement of High-Density Pellet-Fueled Plasmas in the Alcator C Tokamak", M. Greenwald, D. Gwinn, S. Milora, J. Parker, R. Parker, S. Wolfe, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 53 4, 352 (1984).
"Depletion of Ripple Trapped Particles in the Alcator Tokamaks", M. Greenwald, J. J. Schuss, D. Cope, Nuclear Fusion 20, 783 (1980).