

Martin
Greenwald Associate Director MIT  Plasma Science and Fusion Center
Phone: (617) 2536053 Address: NW17107 


Research InterestsExperimental studies of magnetically confined plasmas including turbulence and transport, density limits and pellet fueling. Data management, computation, networks and remote collaborations for scientific research. 

Biographical SketchDr.
Greenwald received bachelor degrees in Physics and
Chemistry from MIT in 1973 and a PhD. in Physics from the
University of California at Berkeley in 1978. He
joined the Plasma Fusion Center in 1978 and has conducted
experimental physics research on the Alcator A, C, and
CMod tokamaks, including studies of energy and
particle transport, pellet fueling, density limits,
neutral particle measurements, and studies of energetic
ion dynamics. He was part of the design team for Alcator
CMod. His recent work has focused on the role
of critical gradients in determining plasma temperature
profiles, on the EDA Hmode regime, and on the role of
turbulent transport in determining the tokamak density
limit. This latter work is aimed toward defining a
"first principals" theory for the limit with the long term
goal of obtaining reliable predictions and extrapolations
to future machines. Dr. Greenwald's work in pellet fueling
on Alcator C included the discovery of a new regime of
enhanced energy and particle confinement. This was the
first attainment of an internal transport barrier in a
tokamak which is recognized as one of two generic
approaches (along with HMode) to improving tokamak
confinement. Because of the correlation with peaked
density profile, the work spurred interest in the hi or
Ion Thermal Gradient driven (ITG) mode, now believed to be
the principal mechanism for anomalous transport in
tokamaks. In 20092011 he was the chief scientist
for the Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) planning team. Dr. Greenwald is Associate
Director of MIT's Plasma Science & Fusion Center
(PSFC) and an MIT Senior Research Scientist. He
heads the PSFC Office of Computer Services and the group
responsible for data acquisition and computing for the
Alcator CMod project. He also leads the transport program
for that experiment. He is currently the chairman of the Federal Advisory Committee for Fusion Energy Sciences (FESAC). Dr. Greenwald also chairs the Program Advisory Committees for the DIIID National Facility. He is an APS Fellow and APS/DPP Distinguished Lecturer in Plasma Physics. 

Selected Publications and
Presentations
"A metadata catalog for
organization and systemization of fusion simulation
data", M. Greenwald, T. Fredian, D. Schissel, J.
Stillerman, Fusion Engineering and Design, to be
published 2011 "Characterization of impurity confinement on Alcator CMod using a multipulse laser blowoff system", Howard, N.T., Greenwald, M.; Rice, J.E., Review of Scientific Instruments, 82, 2011. "Tutorial:
Verification and validation for magnetic fusion",
M. Greenwald, Phys. Plasmas 17, 058101, 2010. "Modification of Hmode pedestal structure with lower hybrid waves on Alcator CMod", Hughes JW, Hubbard AE, Wallace G, Greenwald M, LaBombard B, Lin L, McDermott RM, Parker RR, Reinke ML, Rice JE, Nuclear Fusion 50, 064001, 2010 "Particle transport in tokamak plasmas, theory and experiment", C. Angioni, E. Fable, M. Greenwald, M. Maslov, A.G. Peters, H. Takenaga, H. Weisen, PPCF 51, 124017, 2009. "Observation of ion cyclotron range of frequencies mode conversion plasma flow drive on Alcator CMod", Y. Lin, J. E. Rice, S. J. Wukitch, M. J. Greenwald, A. E. Hubbard, A. InceCushman, L. Lin,E.S. Marmar, M. Porkolab, M. L. Reinke, N. Tsujii, and J. C. Wright, Phys. Plasmas 16, 056102 (2009) "Observation of selfgenerated flows in tokamak plasmas with lowerhybrid driven current", A. InceCushman, J. Rice, M. Reinke, M. Greenwald, G. Wallace, R. Parker, C. Fiore, J.Hughes, P. Bonoli, S. Shiraiwa, A. Hubbard, S. Wolfe, I. Hutchinson, E. Marmar, M. Bitter, J. Wilson, K. Hill, PRL 102, 035002, 2009. "An investigation of secure remote instrument control", Schissel, D.P. , Abla, G.; Fredian, T.; Greenwald, M.; Penaflor, B.G.; Stillerman, J.; Walker, M.L.; Ciarlette, D.J. Fusion Engineering and Design 85, 608, 2010 "Studies of turbulence and transport in Alcator CMod Hmode plasmas with phase contrast imaging and comparisons with GYRO", L. Lin, M. Porkolab, E. Edlund, J. Rost, C. Fiore, M. Greenwald, Y. Lin, D. Mikkelsen, N. Tsujii, S. Wukitch, Phys. Plasmas 16, 012502, 2009. "Observations of countercurrent toroidal rotation in Alcator Cmod LHCD plasmas", J. Rice, A. InceCushman, P. Bonoli, M. Greenwald, J. Hughes, R. Parker, M. Reinke, G. Wallace, C. Fiore, R. Granetz, A. Hubbard, J. Irby, E. Marmar, S. Shiraiwa, S. Wolfe, S. Wukitch, Nuclear Fusion, 49, 025004, 2009. "Studies of turbulence and transport in Alcator CMod Ohmic plasmas with phase contrast imaging and comparisons with gyrokinetic simulations", L. Lin, M. Porkolab, E. Edlund, J. Rost, M. Greenwald, N. Tsujii, J. Candy, R. Waltz, D. Mikkelsen,, PPCF 51, 065006, 2009. "Spontaneous core toroidal rotation in Alcator CMod Lmode, Hmode and ITB plasmas”, J. Rice, A. InceCushman, M. Reinke, Y. Podpaly, M. Greenwald, B. LaBombard, E. Marmar, , PPCF 50, 124042, 2008. "Observation of ICRH mode conversion flow drive in tokamak plasmas",Y. Lin, J. Rice, S. Wukitch, M. Greenwald, A. Hubbard, A. InceCushman, L. Lin, M. Porkolab, M. Reinke, N. Tsujii, PRL 101, 235002, 2008. "Validation in fusion research: Towards guidelines and best practices", P. W. Terry, M. Greenwald, J.N. Leboeuf, G. R. McKee, D. R. Mikkelsen, W. M. Nevins, D. E. Newman, D. P. Stotler, Task Group on Verification and Validation, U.S. Burning Plasma Organization, and U.S. Transport Task Force, Phys. Plasmas 15, 062503 (2008) "Critical gradients and plasma flows in the edge plasma of Alcator CMod, B. LaBombard", J. W. Hughes, N. Smick, A. Graf, K. Marr, R. McDermott, M. Reinke, M. Greenwald, B. Lipschultz, J. L. Terry, D. G. Whyte, S. J. Zweben, and Alcator CMod Team, Phys. Plasmas 15, 056106 (2008) "Communications fabric for scientific collaboration”, Stillerman, J., Baron, D.; Fredian, T.; Greenwald, M.; Schulzrinne, H., Fusion Engineering and Design, 83, p 476479, 2008 "Priorities,
Gaps and Opportunities: Towards a LongRange Strategic
Plan for Magnetic Fusion Energy", M. Greenwald, R.
Callis, D., W. Dorland, D.
Gates, J. Harris, R. Linford, M. Mauel, K. McCarthy, D.
Meade, F. Najmabadi, W. Nevins, J. Sarff, M. Ulrickson, M.
Zarnstorff, S. Zinkle, FESAC report DOE/SC102
(2007).
"The ITER
CODAC conceptual design", Lister, J. B.,
Farthing, J. W., Greenwald, M., Yonekawa, "Particle Transport at Low Collisionality on Alcator CMod", M. Greenwald, J. Hughes, D. Mikkelsen, J. Terry, K. Zhurovich, Alcator Group, TTF, 2007 "Fusion Energy: Promise
and Prospects", (PPT) Seminar at Thayer School
of Engineering, Dartmouth College, May 2006 "A tour of transport
research on Alcator CMod", Seminar at U. Texas, April 2006 "Confinement and Transport
Research in Alcator CMod", Fusion Science and
Technology, 2006 "Visions for Data
Management and Remote Collaboration on ITER", M. Greenwald,
et al., Proceedings of the 10th International Conference
on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control
Systems. "Overview of Alcator
CMod Program", M. Greenwald, et al., Nuclear
Fusion, 45, S109, (2005) IAEA FEC, 2004.. "Core and Edge Transport
in Alcator CMod: Connections Across the Separatrix",
Columbia University  Plasma Physics Colloquium, 2005. "Turbulence and Transport: The
Secrets of Magnetic Confinement", M. Greenwald,
presented at MITPSFC IAP, 2005. "Velocity Fields of Edge/SOL
Turbulence in Alcator CMod", J. Terry, S. Zweben,
O. Grulke, M. Greenwald, B. LaBombard, J. Nucl. Mat.,
337339, 322, 2005. "Beyond Benchmarking:
How Experiments and Simulations Can Work Together in
Plasma Physics" ,
M. Greenwald, Computer Physics Communications, 164,
(2004), 18 "Rotation, SOL Flows and the
Topology Dependence of the HMode Threshold", M.
Greenwald, A. Hubbard, B. LaBombard, J. Rice, APS 2004. "Migration of Alcator CMod
Computer Infrastructure to Linux", T. Fredian, M.
Greenwald, J. Stillerman, Fusion Eng & Design, 71, 89,
2004. "SOL Flows Coupled to the Core
as an Explanation for the UpDown Asymmetry in the L/H
Threshold", M. Greenwald, B. Labombard, A. Hubbard,
J. Rice, J. Hughes, presented at the TTF workshop, 2004. "Core and Edge Transport in
Alcator CMod: Connections Across the Separatrix", M. Greenwald, UCSD
 Plasma Physics Seminar, 2004. "Internal Transport Barrier
Production and Control in Alcator CMod", C. Fiore,
P. Bonoli, D. Ernst, M. Greenwald, et al., PPCF, 46, B281,
2004. "Recent
Highlights from the Alcator CMod Program", M. Greenwald,
Alcator Team, APS 2003. "Transitions of Turbulence in
Plasma Density Limits", X. Xu, W. Nevins, T.
Rognlien, R. Bulmer, M. Greenwald, A. Mahdavi, L.
Pearlstein, P. Snyder, Phys. Plasmas, 10, 1773, 2003. "Turbulence, Transport
and the Density Limit in Magnetic Fusion Experiments", M. Greenwald,
presented at Dartmouth College Plasma Physics Seminar,
2003. "EUUS Transport Task Force
Workshop on Transport in Fusion Plasmas: Transport Near
Operational Limits", J. Connor, X. Garbert, L.
Giannone, M. Greenwald, C. Hidalgo, A. Loarte, P. Mantica,
PPCF, 45, 455, 2003. "Observation of Anomalous
Momentum Transport in Tokamak Plasmas with No Momentum
Input", W. Lee, J. Rice, E. Marmar, M. Greenwald, I.
Hutchinson, J. Snipes, PRL 91, 205003/1, 2003. “Review:
Density limits in toroidal plasmas, M.
Greenwald, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 44,
pgs. R27R80, 2002. "Edge
Turbulence and Transport as a Possible Cause of the
Tokamak Density Limit", M. Greenwald, B. Labombard, APS 2002. "HMode Pedestal
Characteristics and MHD Stability of the Edge Plasma in
Alcator CMod", PPCF, 44, 423, 2002. "Experimental Validation of
Similarity in HighTemperature Plasmas", T. Luce, c. Petty,
J. Cordey, B. Balet, R. Budny, M. Greenwald, J. Schachter,
Nucl. Fusion, 42, 1193, 2002. "Edge Turbulence and
Transport as a possible cause of the tokamak density
limit", M. Greenwald, Preview Talk, 9th EuUS TTF
Workshop, 2002. "Turbulence and Transport:
The Secrets of Magnetic Confinement", M. Greenwald,
presented at Oberlin College Physics Department, 2002. "Density
Limits in Toroidal Plasmas", M. Greenwald, Review
Talk, APS 2001. "Transport in EDA HMode and its
Relation to Fluctuations and the Microstability of the
Pedestal", M. Greenwald, R. Boivin, J. Hastie, et
al, presented at TTF workshop 2001. "Particle Transport in the SOL
and its Relationship to Discharge Density Limit in
Alcator CMod",
B. LaBombard, R. Boiving, M. Greenwald, et al, Phys.
Plasmas, 8, 2107, 2001. "Studies of EDA HMode in
Alcator CMod" M.
Greenwald, et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 42 No 5A
(May 2000) A263A269 "Transport
in EDA Hmode and its relation to fluctuations and the
microstability of the pedestal", M. Greenwald, R.
Boivin, R. Granetz, APS 2000. "Particle transport driven
by quasicoherent fluctuations in EDA Hmodes on Alcator
CMod", M.
Greenwald, R. Boivin, C. Fiore, et al., EUUS TTF 2000. “Fusion
Plasmas", Encyclopedia of
Electrical and Electronic Engineering, John
Webster  editor, published by
John Wiley & Sons, New York (1999) "Highlights of the Alcator
CMod Transport Experiments", M. Greenwald,
presented at Plasma Physics Seminar at Courant
Institute, NYU, 1999. "Characterization of EDA Hmodes in Alcator CMod", M. Greenwald, R. Boivin, P. Bonoli, et al., Physics of Plasmas. 6, 1943 (1999). "Studies of EDA HMode in Alcator CMod", M. Greenwald, A. Hubbard, B. LaBombard, et al., APS 1999. "Highlights of Alcator CMod Transport Experiments", M. Greenwald, PPPL Theory Seminar, 1999. "Studies of EDA Hmode in Alcator CMod", M. Greenwald, R. Boivin, C. Fiore, et al., HMode Workshop, 1999. "HMode regimes and observations of central toroidal rotation in Alcator CMod" M. Greenwald, J. Rice, et al., Proceedings of IAEA 17th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Yokohama (1998), Vol. 1, (2000), 281. (Vugraphs from Presentation) "Transport Studies on CMod and Relevance to HighField Ignition Experiments", M. Greenwald, presented at workshop of US Ignitor Working Group, 1999. "Transport Phenomena in Alcator CMod HModes", M. Greenwald, J. Schachter, W. Dorland, et al., Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 40, (1998), 789 "HMode Regimes and Observations of Central Toroidal Rotation in Alcator CMod", M. Greenwald, J. Rice, et al., presentation at IAEA  FEC, 1998. "Observations of Central Toroidal Rotation in ICRF Heated ALcator CMod Plasmas", J. Rice, M. Greenwald, I. Hutchinson, et al., Nucl. Fusion, 38, 75, 1998. "H Mode Confinement in Alcator CMod", M. Greenwald, R.L. Boivin, F. Bombarda, et al., Nuclear Fusion, 37, (1997), 793 "Data Acquisition System for Alcator CMod", T. Fredian, J. Stillerman, M. Greenwald, RSI, 68, 935, 1997. "Remote Control of Alcator CMod from LLNL", S. Horne, M. Greenwald, T. Fredian, et al., Fusion Technology, 32, 152, 1997. "Transport Experiments in Alcator CMod", M. Greenwald, R. Boivin, F. Bombarda, et al., Physics of Plasmas 2, (1995) 23082313 "Confinement of Ohmic and ICRF Heated Plasmas in Alcator CMod", M. Greenwald, et al., Proceedings of IAEA 15th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Seville, Volume 2, 15 (1995), Available also as PFC/JA 9429 "A New Look at Density Limits", M. Greenwald, J. Terry, S. Wolfe, S. Ejima, M. Bell, S. Kaye, G.H. Neilsen, Nuclear Fusion 28 (1988) 2199. "Microwave Measurements of the Mass of Frozen Hydrogen Pellets", V. Talanker, M. Greenwald, RSI, 59, 1095, 1988. "Studies of the Regime of
Improved Particle and Energy Confinement Following
Pellet Injection into Alcator C.", M.
Greenwald, M. Besen, F. Camacho, et al., .,
Proceedings of IAEA 11th International Conference on
Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research,
Kyoto, Volume I, 139 (1987). "Effect of Pellet Fueling on
Energy Transport in Ohmically Heated Alcator C Plasmas",
S. Wolfe, M. Greenwald, R. Gandy, et al., Nucl. Fusion,
26, 329, 1986. "Observations of Centrally
Peaked Impurity Profiles Following Pellet Injection in
the Alcator C Tokamak", R. Petrasso, D. Sigmar, K.
Wenzel, J. Hopf, M. Greenwald, J. Terry, J. Parker, PRL,
57, 707, 1986. "Progress in tokamak
research at MIT", R. Parker, M. Greenwald, S.
Luckhardt, E. Marmar, M. Porkolab, S. WOlfe, Nuclear
Fusion, 25, 1127, 1985. "Pellet
Fueling Experiments in Alcator C", M. Greenwald, et
al., J. Vac. Sci. Technology, A, 3, 1192, 1985. "Energy Confinement of HighDensity PelletFueled Plasmas in the Alcator C Tokamak", M. Greenwald, D. Gwinn, S. Milora, J. Parker, R. Parker, S. Wolfe, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 53 4, 352 (1984). "Depletion of Ripple Trapped Particles in the Alcator Tokamaks", M. Greenwald, J. J. Schuss, D. Cope, Nuclear Fusion 20, 783 (1980). 