martin greenwald

Martin Greenwald
Deputy Director
MIT - Plasma Science and Fusion Center


Phone: (617) 253-6053

Address: NW17-207

Research Interests

Experimental studies of magnetically confined plasmas including turbulence and transport, density limits and pellet fueling.   Data management, computation, networks and remote collaborations for scientific research.

Biographical Sketch

Dr. Greenwald received bachelor degrees in Physics and Chemistry from MIT in 1973 and a PhD. in Physics from the University of California at Berkeley in 1978.  He joined the Plasma Fusion Center in 1978 and has conducted experimental physics research on the Alcator A, C, and C-Mod tokamaks, including  studies of energy and particle transport, pellet fueling, density limits, neutral particle measurements, and studies of energetic ion dynamics. He was part of the design team for Alcator C-Mod.  His recent work has focused on  the role of critical gradients in determining plasma temperature profiles, on the EDA H-mode regime, and on the role of turbulent transport in determining the tokamak density limit.  This latter work is aimed toward defining a "first principals" theory for the limit with the long term goal of obtaining reliable predictions and extrapolations to future machines. Dr. Greenwald's work in pellet fueling on Alcator C included the discovery of a new regime of enhanced energy and particle confinement. This was the first attainment of an internal transport barrier in a tokamak which is recognized as one of two generic approaches (along with H-Mode) to improving tokamak confinement.  Because of the correlation with peaked density profile, the work spurred interest in the hi or Ion Thermal Gradient driven (ITG) mode, now believed to be the principal mechanism for anomalous transport in tokamaks.  In 2009-2011 he was the chief scientist for the Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) planning team.

Dr. Greenwald is Deputy Director of MIT's Plasma Science & Fusion Center (PSFC) and an MIT Senior Research Scientist.  He heads the PSFC Office of Computer Services and the group responsible for data acquisition and computing for the Alcator C-Mod project. He serves on the editorial board for Physics of Plasmas, is a past chairman of the Federal Advisory Committee for Fusion Energy Sciences (FESAC), an APS Fellow and APS/DPP Distinguished Lecturer in Plasma Physics.

Selected Publications and Presentations

"A metadata catalog for organization and systemization of fusion simulation data", M. Greenwald, T. Fredian, D. Schissel, J. Stillerman, Fusion Engineering and Design, to be published  2011

"Scaling of the power exhaust channel in Alcator C-Mod", B. LaBombard, J. L. Terry, J. W. Hughes, D. Brunner, J. Payne, M. L. Reinke, I. Cziegler, R. Granetz, M. Greenwald, I. H. Hutchinson, J. Irby, Y. Lin, B. Lipschultz, Y. Ma, E. S. Marmar, W. L. Rowan, N. Tsujii, G. Wallace, D. G. Whyte, S. Wolfe, S. Wukitch, G. Wurden, and Alcator C-Mod Team  Phys. Plasmas 18, 056104 (2011)

"High confinement/high radiated power H-mode experiments in Alcator C-Mod and consequences for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) QDT = 10 operation", A. Loarte, J. W. Hughes, M. L. Reinke, J. L. Terry, B. LaBombard, D. Brunner, M. Greenwald, B. Lipschultz, Y. Ma, S. Wukitch, and S. Wolfe Phys. Plasmas 18, 056105 (2011)

"Edge Temperature Gradient as Intrinsic Rotation Drive in Alcator C-Mod Tokamak", J. E. Rice, J. W. Hughes, P. H. Diamond, Y. Kosuga, Y. A. Podpaly, M. L. Reinke, M. J. Greenwald, Ö. D. Gürcan4, T. S. Hahm, A. E. Hubbard, E. S. Marmar, C. J. McDevitt, and D. G. Whyte   Plasmas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 215001 (2011)

"Observations of core toroidal rotation reversals in Alcator C-Mod Ohmic L-mode plasmas", J.E. Rice, B.P. Duval, M.L. Reinke, Y.A. Podpaly, A. Bortolon, R.M. Churchill, I. Cziegler, P.H. Diamond, A. Dominguez, P.C. Ennever, C.L. Fiore, R.S. Granetz, M.J. Greenwald, A.E. Hubbard, J.W. Hughes, J.H. Irby, Y. Ma, E.S. Marmar, R.M. McDermott, M. Porkolab, N. Tsujii and S.M. Wolfe,  , Nucl. Fusion 51 083005, 2011

"Edge energy transport barrier and turbulence in the I-mode regime on Alcator C-Mod", A. E. Hubbard, D. G. Whyte, R. M. Churchill, I. Cziegler, A. Dominguez, T. Golfinopoulos, J. W. Hughes, J. E. Rice, I. Bespamyatnov, M. J. Greenwald, N. Howard, B. Lipschultz, E. S. Marmar, M. L. Reinke, W. L. Rowan, J. L. Terry, and Alcator C-Mod Group, Phys. Plasmas 18, 056115, 2011

"Characterization of impurity confinement on Alcator C-Mod using a multi-pulse laser blow-off system", Howard, N.T., Greenwald, M.; Rice, J.E.,   Review of Scientific Instruments, 82, 2011.

"Tutorial:  Verification and validation for magnetic fusion", M. Greenwald, Phys. Plasmas 17, 058101, 2010.

"I-mode: an H-mode energy confinement regime with L-mode particle transport in Alcator C-Mod", D.G. Whyte, A.E. Hubbard , J.W. Hughes , B. Lipschultz , J.E. Rice , E.S. Marmar , M. Greenwald , I. Cziegler , A. Dominguez , T. Golfinopoulos , N. Howard , L. Lin , R.M. McDermott, M. Porkolab , M.L. Reinke , J. Terry , N. Tsujii , S. Wolfe , S. Wukitch , Y. Lin and the Alcator C-Mod Team,   Nucl. Fusion 50 105005, 2010

"Operation Request Gatekeeper: A software system for remote access control of diagnostic instruments in fusion experiments",Abla, G., Fredian, T.W.; Schissel, D.P.; Stillerman, J.A.; Greenwald, M.J.; Stepanov, D.N.; Ciarlette, D.J.,  Review of Scientific Instruments  81,  2010

"Modification of H-mode pedestal structure with lower hybrid waves on Alcator C-Mod", Hughes JW, Hubbard AE, Wallace G, Greenwald M, LaBombard B, Lin L, McDermott RM, Parker RR, Reinke ML, Rice JE,  Nuclear Fusion  50, 064001, 2010

"Particle transport in tokamak plasmas, theory and experiment", C. Angioni, E. Fable, M. Greenwald, M. Maslov, A.G. Peters, H. Takenaga, H. Weisen, PPCF 51, 124017, 2009.

"Observation of ion cyclotron range of frequencies mode conversion plasma flow drive on Alcator C-Mod", Y. Lin, J. E. Rice, S. J. Wukitch, M. J. Greenwald, A. E. Hubbard, A. Ince-Cushman, L. Lin,E.S. Marmar, M. Porkolab, M. L. Reinke, N. Tsujii, and J. C. Wright,  Phys. Plasmas 16, 056102 (2009)

"Observation of self-generated flows in tokamak plasmas with lower-hybrid driven current", A. Ince-Cushman, J. Rice, M. Reinke, M. Greenwald, G. Wallace, R. Parker, C. Fiore, J.Hughes, P. Bonoli, S. Shiraiwa, A. Hubbard, S. Wolfe, I. Hutchinson, E. Marmar, M. Bitter, J. Wilson, K. Hill,  PRL 102, 035002, 2009.

"An investigation of secure remote instrument control",  Schissel, D.P. , Abla, G.; Fredian, T.; Greenwald, M.; Penaflor, B.G.; Stillerman, J.; Walker, M.L.; Ciarlette, D.J. Fusion Engineering and Design 85, 608, 2010

"Studies of turbulence and transport in Alcator C-Mod H-mode plasmas with phase contrast imaging and comparisons with GYRO", L. Lin, M. Porkolab, E. Edlund, J. Rost, C. Fiore, M. Greenwald, Y. Lin, D. Mikkelsen, N. Tsujii, S. Wukitch, Phys. Plasmas 16, 012502, 2009.

"Observations of counter-current toroidal rotation in Alcator C-mod LHCD plasmas", J. Rice, A. Ince-Cushman, P. Bonoli, M. Greenwald, J. Hughes, R. Parker, M. Reinke, G. Wallace, C. Fiore, R. Granetz, A. Hubbard, J. Irby, E. Marmar, S. Shiraiwa, S. Wolfe, S. Wukitch, Nuclear Fusion, 49, 025004, 2009.
"Studies of turbulence and transport in Alcator C-Mod Ohmic plasmas with phase contrast imaging and comparisons with gyrokinetic simulations", L. Lin, M. Porkolab, E. Edlund, J. Rost, M. Greenwald, N. Tsujii, J. Candy, R. Waltz, D. Mikkelsen,, PPCF 51, 065006, 2009.

"Spontaneous core toroidal rotation in Alcator C-Mod L-mode, H-mode and ITB plasmas”, J. Rice, A. Ince-Cushman, M. Reinke, Y. Podpaly, M. Greenwald, B. LaBombard, E. Marmar, , PPCF 50, 124042, 2008.

"Observation of  ICRH mode conversion flow drive in tokamak plasmas",Y. Lin, J. Rice, S. Wukitch, M. Greenwald, A. Hubbard, A. Ince-Cushman, L. Lin, M. Porkolab, M. Reinke, N. Tsujii,  PRL 101, 235002, 2008.

"Validation in fusion research: Towards guidelines and best practices", P. W. Terry, M. Greenwald, J.-N. Leboeuf, G. R. McKee, D. R. Mikkelsen, W. M. Nevins, D. E. Newman, D. P. Stotler, Task Group on Verification and Validation, U.S. Burning Plasma Organization, and U.S. Transport Task Force,  Phys. Plasmas 15, 062503 (2008)

"Critical gradients and plasma flows in the edge plasma of Alcator C-Mod, B. LaBombard", J. W. Hughes, N. Smick, A. Graf, K. Marr, R. McDermott, M. Reinke, M. Greenwald, B. Lipschultz, J. L. Terry, D. G. Whyte, S. J. Zweben, and Alcator C-Mod Team,   Phys. Plasmas 15, 056106 (2008)

"Communications fabric for scientific collaboration”, Stillerman, J., Baron, D.; Fredian, T.; Greenwald, M.; Schulzrinne, H.,  Fusion Engineering and Design, 83, p 476-479,  2008

"Priorities, Gaps and Opportunities: Towards a Long-Range Strategic Plan for Magnetic Fusion Energy", M. Greenwald, R. Callis, D.,  W. Dorland, D. Gates, J. Harris, R. Linford, M. Mauel, K. McCarthy, D. Meade, F. Najmabadi, W. Nevins, J. Sarff, M. Ulrickson, M. Zarnstorff, S. Zinkle, FESAC report    DOE/SC-102  (2007).

"Particle Transport and Density Peaking at Low Collisionality on Alcator C-Mod", M. Greenwald, J. Hughes, D. Mikkelsen, J. Terry, Alcator Group, C. Angioni, H. Weisen, APS-DPP, 2007

"The ITER CODAC conceptual design", Lister, J. B., Farthing, J. W., Greenwald, M., Yonekawa, I., Fusion Eng. And Design, 82, 1167, 2007.

"Particle Transport at Low Collisionality on Alcator C-Mod", M. Greenwald, J. Hughes, D. Mikkelsen, J. Terry, K. Zhurovich, Alcator Group, TTF, 2007

"Fusion Energy: Promise and Prospects",  (PPT) Seminar at Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, May 2006

"A tour of transport research on Alcator C-Mod", Seminar at U. Texas, April 2006

"Confinement and Transport Research in Alcator C-Mod", Fusion Science and Technology, 2006

"Visions for Data Management and Remote Collaboration on ITER",  M. Greenwald, et al., Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems.
(Vugraphs of Presentation)
(Vugraphs of CRPP Presentation)

"Overview of Alcator C-Mod Program",  M. Greenwald, et al., Nuclear Fusion, 45, S109, (2005) IAEA FEC, 2004..
(Vugraphs of Presentation)

"Core and Edge Transport in Alcator C-Mod: Connections Across the Separatrix", Columbia University - Plasma Physics Colloquium, 2005.

"Turbulence and Transport: The Secrets of Magnetic Confinement", M. Greenwald, presented at MIT-PSFC IAP, 2005.

"Velocity Fields of Edge/SOL Turbulence in Alcator C-Mod", J. Terry, S. Zweben, O. Grulke, M. Greenwald, B. LaBombard, J. Nucl. Mat., 337-339, 322, 2005.

"Beyond Benchmarking: How Experiments and Simulations Can Work Together in Plasma Physics" , M. Greenwald, Computer Physics Communications, 164, (2004), 1-8
(Review Talk - Vugraphs of Presentation)

"Rotation, SOL Flows and the Topology Dependence of the H-Mode Threshold", M. Greenwald, A. Hubbard, B. LaBombard, J. Rice, APS 2004.

"Migration of Alcator C-Mod Computer Infrastructure to Linux", T. Fredian, M. Greenwald, J. Stillerman, Fusion Eng & Design, 71, 89, 2004.

"SOL Flows Coupled to the Core as an Explanation for the Up-Down Asymmetry in the L/H Threshold", M. Greenwald, B. Labombard, A. Hubbard, J. Rice, J. Hughes, presented at the TTF workshop, 2004.

"Core and Edge Transport in Alcator C-Mod: Connections Across the Separatrix", M. Greenwald, UCSD - Plasma Physics Seminar, 2004.

"Internal Transport Barrier Production and Control in Alcator C-Mod", C. Fiore, P. Bonoli, D. Ernst, M. Greenwald, et al., PPCF, 46, B281, 2004.

"Recent Highlights from the Alcator C-Mod Program", M. Greenwald, Alcator Team, APS 2003.

"Transitions of Turbulence in Plasma Density Limits", X. Xu, W. Nevins, T. Rognlien, R. Bulmer, M. Greenwald, A. Mahdavi, L. Pearlstein, P. Snyder, Phys. Plasmas, 10, 1773, 2003.

"Turbulence, Transport and the Density Limit in Magnetic Fusion Experiments", M. Greenwald, presented at Dartmouth College Plasma Physics Seminar, 2003.

"EU-US Transport Task Force Workshop on Transport in Fusion Plasmas: Transport Near Operational Limits", J. Connor, X. Garbert, L. Giannone, M. Greenwald, C. Hidalgo, A. Loarte, P. Mantica, PPCF, 45, 455, 2003.

"Observation of Anomalous Momentum Transport in Tokamak Plasmas with No Momentum Input", W. Lee, J. Rice, E. Marmar, M. Greenwald, I. Hutchinson, J. Snipes, PRL 91, 205003/1, 2003.

“Review: Density limits in toroidal plasmas, M. Greenwald, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 44, pgs. R27-R80, 2002.

"Edge Turbulence and Transport as a Possible Cause of the Tokamak Density Limit", M. Greenwald, B. Labombard, APS 2002.

"H-Mode Pedestal Characteristics and MHD Stability of the Edge Plasma in Alcator C-Mod", PPCF, 44, 423, 2002.

"Experimental Validation of Similarity in High-Temperature Plasmas", T. Luce, c. Petty, J. Cordey, B. Balet, R. Budny, M. Greenwald, J. Schachter, Nucl. Fusion, 42, 1193, 2002.

"Edge Turbulence and Transport as a possible cause of the tokamak density limit", M. Greenwald, Preview Talk, 9th Eu-US TTF Workshop, 2002.

"Turbulence and Transport: The Secrets of Magnetic Confinement", M. Greenwald, presented at Oberlin College Physics Department, 2002.

"Density Limits in Toroidal Plasmas", M. Greenwald, Review Talk, APS 2001.

"Transport in EDA H-Mode and its Relation to Fluctuations and the Microstability of the Pedestal", M. Greenwald, R. Boivin, J. Hastie, et al, presented at TTF workshop 2001.

"Particle Transport in the SOL and its Relationship to Discharge Density Limit in Alcator C-Mod", B. LaBombard, R. Boiving, M. Greenwald, et al, Phys. Plasmas, 8, 2107, 2001.

"Studies of EDA H-Mode in Alcator C-Mod"  M. Greenwald, et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 42 No 5A (May 2000) A263-A269

"Transport in EDA H-mode and its relation to fluctuations and the microstability of the pedestal", M. Greenwald, R. Boivin, R. Granetz, APS 2000.

"Particle transport driven by quasi-coherent fluctuations in EDA H-modes on Alcator C-Mod", M. Greenwald, R. Boivin, C. Fiore, et al., EU-US TTF 2000.

“Fusion Plasmas", Encyclopedia of  Electrical and Electronic Engineering, John Webster - editor, published  by John Wiley & Sons, New York (1999)

"Highlights of the Alcator C-Mod Transport Experiments", M. Greenwald, presented at Plasma Physics Seminar at Courant Institute, NYU, 1999.

"Characterization of EDA H-modes in Alcator C-Mod", M. Greenwald, R. Boivin, P. Bonoli, et al.,  Physics of Plasmas. 6, 1943 (1999).

"Studies of EDA H-Mode in Alcator C-Mod",  M. Greenwald, A. Hubbard, B. LaBombard, et al., APS 1999.

"Highlights of Alcator C-Mod Transport Experiments", M. Greenwald, PPPL Theory Seminar, 1999.

"Studies of EDA H-mode in Alcator C-Mod", M. Greenwald, R. Boivin, C. Fiore, et al., H-Mode Workshop, 1999.

  "H-Mode regimes and observations of central toroidal rotation in Alcator C-Mod" M. Greenwald, J. Rice, et al., Proceedings of IAEA 17th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Yokohama (1998), Vol. 1, (2000), 281. (Vugraphs from Presentation)

"Transport Studies on C-Mod and Relevance to High-Field Ignition Experiments", M. Greenwald, presented at workshop of US Ignitor Working Group, 1999.

"Transport Phenomena in Alcator C-Mod H-Modes", M. Greenwald, J. Schachter, W. Dorland, et al., Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion,  40, (1998), 789

"H-Mode Regimes and Observations of Central Toroidal Rotation in Alcator C-Mod", M. Greenwald, J. Rice, et al., presentation at IAEA - FEC, 1998.

"Observations of Central Toroidal Rotation in ICRF Heated ALcator C-Mod Plasmas", J. Rice, M. Greenwald, I. Hutchinson, et al., Nucl. Fusion, 38, 75, 1998.

"H Mode Confinement in Alcator C-Mod", M. Greenwald, R.L. Boivin, F. Bombarda, et al., Nuclear Fusion, 37, (1997), 793

"Data Acquisition System for Alcator C-Mod", T. Fredian, J. Stillerman, M. Greenwald, RSI, 68, 935, 1997.

"Remote Control of Alcator C-Mod from LLNL", S. Horne, M. Greenwald, T. Fredian, et al., Fusion Technology, 32, 152, 1997.

"Transport Experiments in Alcator C-Mod", M. Greenwald, R. Boivin, F. Bombarda, et al.,  Physics of Plasmas 2, (1995) 2308-2313

 "Confinement of Ohmic and ICRF Heated Plasmas in Alcator C-Mod", M. Greenwald, et al.,   Proceedings of IAEA 15th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Seville, Volume 2,   15 (1995), Available also as PFC/JA 94-29

"A New Look at Density Limits",  M. Greenwald, J. Terry, S. Wolfe, S. Ejima, M. Bell, S. Kaye, G.H.  Neilsen, Nuclear Fusion 28 (1988)  2199.

"Microwave Measurements of the Mass of Frozen Hydrogen Pellets", V. Talanker, M. Greenwald, RSI, 59, 1095, 1988.

"Studies of the Regime of  Improved Particle and Energy Confinement Following Pellet Injection  into Alcator C.",  M. Greenwald, M. Besen, F. Camacho,  et al., ., Proceedings of IAEA 11th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Kyoto, Volume I,  139 (1987).

"Effect of Pellet Fueling on Energy Transport in Ohmically Heated Alcator C Plasmas", S. Wolfe, M. Greenwald, R. Gandy, et al., Nucl. Fusion, 26, 329, 1986.

"Observations of Centrally Peaked Impurity Profiles Following Pellet Injection in the Alcator C Tokamak", R. Petrasso, D. Sigmar, K. Wenzel, J. Hopf, M. Greenwald, J. Terry, J. Parker, PRL, 57, 707, 1986.

"Progress in tokamak research at MIT", R. Parker, M. Greenwald, S. Luckhardt, E. Marmar, M. Porkolab, S. WOlfe, Nuclear Fusion, 25, 1127, 1985.

"Pellet Fueling Experiments in Alcator C", M. Greenwald, et al.,  J. Vac. Sci. Technology, A, 3, 1192, 1985.

"Energy Confinement of High-Density Pellet-Fueled Plasmas in the Alcator C Tokamak",  M. Greenwald, D. Gwinn, S. Milora, J. Parker, R. Parker, S. Wolfe, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 53 4, 352 (1984).

"Depletion of Ripple Trapped Particles in the Alcator Tokamaks",  M. Greenwald, J. J. Schuss, D. Cope, Nuclear Fusion 20, 783 (1980).

                    C-ModAlcator C-Mod Project

MDSplusMDSplus Data System

                    gridNational Fusion Collaboratory

PSFCPlasma Science and Fusion Center